Edward L. Fink
Edward L. Fink
Laura H. Carnell Professor
Departments: Communication and Social Influence, Media & Communication
Office: 215-204-1092
Weiss Hall, Room 339


Edward Fink grew up in the Bronx and graduated from Columbia University (undergraduate) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (graduate). He majored in sociology at both institutions. He also had a heavy dose of mathematics at Columbia, and at Wisconsin, his cognate field was educational psychology.

Fink’s research is quantitative and typically experimental. He studies attitude and belief changes, social influences, research methods and statistics, and social networks. He co-authored (with J. Woelfel) The Measurement of Communication Processes: Galileo Theory and Method (New York, NY: Academic Press, 1980), and has been editor of Human Communication Research, chair of the University of Maryland’s Department of Communication, and associate dean of Maryland’s Graduate School. He also is a fellow of the International Communication Association (ICA) and a recipient of ICA’s B. Aubrey Fisher Mentorship Award.

He became a professor at Temple University on July 1, 2015.

Courses Taught

  • Methods and Statistics
    • The General Linear Model
    • Research Methods in Communication
    • Special Topics in Data Analysis
    • Structural Equation Models
  • Communication Theory and Modeling
    • Communication Theory
    • Theory Construction and Modeling
  • Content Areas
    • Humor, Cognition and Communication
    • Humor and Embarrassment
    • Interaction Processes
    • Interpersonal Communication Strategies and Styles
    • Intercultural Communication Theory
    • Models of Persuasion
    • Persuasion and Attitude Change







Columbia University



University of Wisconsin-Madison



University of Wisconsin-Madison


Woelfel, J. D., & Fink, E. L. (1980). The measurement of communication processes:  Galileo theory and method. New York, NY: Academic Press. Pp. 180–198 reprinted in D. A. Cai (Ed.). (2010). Intercultural communication: Vol. 1. Structural and ideational foundations. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Articles and Chapters in Refereed Serial Publications
Gillespie, A., Fink, E. L., Gardner, H., Gadegbeku, C., Reese, P., & Obradovic, Z. (in press). Does whom patients sit next to during hemodialysis affect whether they request a living donation? Kidney360.

Fink, E. L., & Cai, D. A. (2020). Multidimensional scaling. In J. Van den Bulck, D. Ewoldsen, M.-L. Mares, & E. Scharrer (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Media Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119011071.iemp0282 <https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119011071.iemp0282>

Fink, E. L., Smith, R. A., Cai, D. A., Jung, H., & Woelfel, J. (in press). How Americans make sense of two novel pandemics. Health Communication. doi:10.1080/10410236.2020.1857506

Zhao, E., & Fink, E. L. (in press). Proattitudinal versus counterattitudinal messages: Message discrepancy, reactance, and the boomerang effect. Communication Monographs. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2020.1813317 <https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2020.1813317>

Smith, R. A., Fink, E. L., Romano, A., & M’ikanatha. (2020). Precise persuasion: Investigating incentive appeals for the promotion of antibiotic stewardship with message-induced transitions. Journal of Health Communication. doi:10.1080/10810730.2020.1778821 <https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2020.1778821>

Gillespie, A., Gardiner, H. M., Fink, E. L., Reese, P. P., Gadegbeku, C. A., & Obradovic, Z. (2020). Does sex, race, and the size of a kidney transplant candidate’s social network affect the number of living donor requests? A multi-center social network analysis of patients on the kidney transplant waitlist. Transplantation, 104(12), 2632-641. doi:10.1097/TP.0000000000031672

Zhu, J., Liu, M., & Fink, E. L. (accepted pending minor revisions). The role of person-culture fit in Chinese students’ cultural adjustment in the U.S.: A Galileo mental model approach. Human Communication Research.

Bessarabova, E., Turner, M. M., Fink, E. L., & Blustein, N. B. (2015). Extending the theory of reactance to guilt appeals: “You ain’t guiltin’ me into nothin’.” Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 223, 215–224. doi:10.1027/2151-2604/a000223

Smith, R. A., & Fink, E. L. (2015). Understanding the influential people and social structures shaping compliance. Journal of Social Structure16(4), 1–​15.

Fink, E. L., High, A. C., & Smith, R. A. (2015). Compliance dynamics within a friendship network II: Structural positions used to garner social support. Human Communication Research, 41, 21–​54. doi:10.1111/hcre.12038

Chung, S., & Fink, E. L. (2014). Sequential information integration and belief trajectories II: Testing of candidate evaluation trajectories in response to negative incongruent messages. Communication Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0093650214534964

Cionea, I. A., Hample, D., & Fink, E. L. (2013). Dialogue types: A scale development study. In D. Mohammed & M. Lewiński (Eds.), Virtues of argumentation. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation (OSSA), 1–​11. Windsor, ON: OSSA. [CD-ROM]

Bessarabova, E., Fink, E. L., & Turner, M. M. (2013). Reactance, restoration, and cognitive structure: Comparative statics. Human Communication Research, 39, 339–​364. doi:10.1111/hcre.12007

 Han, B., & Fink, E. L. (2012). How do statistical and narrative evidence affect persuasion?: The role of evidentiary features. Argumentation and Advocacy, 49, 39–​58.

Wang, Q., Fink, E. L., & Cai, D. A. (2012). The effect of conflict goals on avoidance strategies: What does not communicating communicate? Human Communication Research38, 222–​252. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2011.01421.x

Chung, S., Fink, E. L., Waks, L., Meffert, M. F., & Xie, X. (2012). Sequential information integration and belief trajectories: An experimental study using candidate evaluations. Communication Monographs79, 160–​180. doi:10.1080/03637751.2012. 673001

Cai, D. A., Fink, E. L., & Xie, X. (2012). “Brother, can you spare some time, or a dime?”: Time and money obligations in the U.S. and China. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology43, 592–​613. doi:10.1177/0022022111401394

Smith, R. A., & Fink, E. L. (2010). Compliance dynamics within a simulated friendship network I: The effects of agency, tactic, and node centrality. Human Communication Research, 36, 232–​260. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2010.01375.x

Fink, E. L. (2009). The FAQS on data transformation. Communication Monographs, 76, 379–​397. (Invited article.). doi:10.1080/03637750903310352

Chung, S., Fink, E. L., & Kaplowitz, S. A. (2008). The comparative statics and dynamics of beliefs: The effect of message discrepancy and source credibility. Communication Monographs75, 139–​170. doi:10.1080/03637750802082060 *Received the Distinguished Article Award for 2009 from the Communication and Social Cognition Division of the National Communication Association, November 2010.

Wang, Q., Fink, E. L., & Cai, D. A. (2008). Loneliness, gender, and parasocial interaction: A uses and gratifications approach.Communication Quarterly56, 87–​109. doi:10.1080/01463370701839057  Reported in COMM 365: Celebrating 100 years of communication research (2014), p. 43 (found at http://www.natcom.org/uploadedFiles/About_NCA/Centennial/NCA_Comm365_Fin...).

Chung, S., & Fink, E. L. (2008). The cognitive dynamics of beliefs: The effect of information on message processing. Human Communication Research34, 477–​504. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2008.00329.x

Barnett, G. A., & Fink, E. L. (2008). Impact of the Internet and scholar age distribution on academic citation age. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59, 526-534. doi:10.1002/asi.20706

Dinauer, L. D., & Fink, E. L. (2005). Inter-attitude structure and attitude dynamics: A comparison of the hierarchical and Galileo spatial-linkage models. Human Communication Research31, 1–​32. doi:10.1093/hcr/31.1.1

Fink, E. L., Cai, D. A., Kaplowitz, S. A., Chung, S., Van Dyke, M., & Kim, J.-N. (2003). The semantics of social influence: Threats versus persuasion.  Communication Monographs70, 295–​316. doi:10.1080/0363775032000179115 *Received the Distinguished Article Award from the Communication and Social Cognition Division of the National Communication Association, November 2005.

Cai, D. A., & Fink, E. L. (2002). Conflict style differences between individualists and collectivists. Communication Monographs69, 67-87. doi:10.1080/03637750216536 *Received the Distinguished Article Award from the Communication and Social Cognition Division of the National Communication Association, November 2003. Reprinted in D. A. Cai (Ed.). (2010). Intercultural communication: Vol. 2. Studying intercultural communication (pp. 223–​248). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Fink, E. L. (1996). Dynamic social impact theory and the study of human communication. Journal of Communication46(4), 4–​12. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1996.tb01500.x (Editorial introduction.)

Fink, E. L., & Chen, S.-S. (1995). A Galileo analysis of organizational climate. Human Communication Research21, 494–​521. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1995.tb00356.x

Tennenbaum, A. N., & Fink, E. L. (1994). Temporal regularities in homicide: Cycles, seasons, and autoregression. Journal of Quantitative Criminology10, 317–​342. doi:10.1007/BF02221279

Fink, E. L. (1993). Mathematical models for communication: An introduction. Journal of Communication43(1), 4–​7. (Editorial introduction.) doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01245.x

Freimuth, V. S., Hammond, S. L., Edgar, T. M., McDonald, D. A., & Fink, E. L. (1992). Factors explaining intent, discussion, and use of condoms in first-time sexual encounters. Health Education Research: Theory & Practice7, 203–​215. doi:10.1093/her/7.2.203

Edgar, T., Freimuth, V. S., Hammond, S. L., McDonald, D. A., & Fink, E. L. (1992). Strategic sexual communication: Condom use resistance and response. Health Communication4, 83–​104. doi:10.1207/s15327027hc0402_1

Barnett, G. A., Chang, H.-J., Fink, E. L., & Richards, W. D. (1991). Seasonality in television viewing: A mathematical model of cultural processes. Communication Research18, 755–​772. doi:10.1177/009365091018006003

Kaplowitz, S. A., & Fink, E. L. (with Mulcrone, J., Atkin, D., & Dabil, S.). (1991). Disentangling the effects of discrepant and disconfirming information. Social Psychology Quarterly54, 191–​207. doi:10.2307/2786650

Fink, E. L., Monahan, J. L., & Kaplowitz, S. A. (1989). A spatial model of the mere exposure effect. Communication Research16, 746–​769. doi:10.1177/009365089016006002

Barnett, G. A., Fink, E. L., & Debus, M. B. (1989). A mathematical model of academic citation age. Communication Research16, 510–​531. doi:10.1177/009365089016004003

Neuendorf, K. A., Kaplowitz, S. A., Fink, E. L., & Armstrong, G. B. (1987). Assessment of the use of self-referent concepts for the measurement of cognition and affect. In M. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication yearbook 10 (pp. 183–​199). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Kaplowitz, S. A., Fink, E. L., Armstrong, G. B., & Bauer, C. L. (1986). Message discrepancy and the persistence of attitude change: Implications of an information integration model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology22, 507–​530. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(86)90048-X

Fink, E. L., Robinson, J. P., & Dowden, S. (1985). The structure of music preference and attendance. Communication Research12, 301–​318. (Invited article.) doi:10.1177/009365085012003003

Maase, S. W., Fink, E. L., & Kaplowitz, S. A. (1984). Incongruity in humor: The cognitive dynamics. In R. N. Bostrom (Ed.), Communication yearbook 8 (pp. 80–​105). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Levy, M. R., & Fink, E. L. (1984). Home video recorders and the transience of television broadcasts. Journal of Communication34(2), 56–​71. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1984.tb02159.x (Reprinted in Mass communication review yearbook, 1985; see below.)

Bauer, C. L., & Fink, E. L. (1983). Fitting equations with power transformations: Examining variables with error. In R. N. Bostrom (Ed.), Communication yearbook 7 (pp. 146–​198). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Fink, E. L., Kaplowitz, S. A., & Bauer, C. L. (1983). Positional discrepancy, psychological discrepancy, and attitude change: Experimental tests of some mathematical models. Communication Monographs50, 413–​430. doi:10.1080/03637758309390178

Kaplowitz, S. A., Fink, E. L., D’Alessio, D., & Armstrong, G. B. (1983). Anonymity, strength of attitude, and the influence of public opinion polls. Human Communication Research10, 5–​25. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1983.tb00002.x

Kaplowitz, S. A., Fink, E. L., & Bauer, C. L. (1983). A dynamic model of the effect of discrepant information on unidimensional attitude change. Behavioral Science28, 233–​250. doi:10.1002/bs.3830280306

Kaplowitz, S. A., & Fink, E. L. (1982). Attitude change and attitudinal trajectories: A dynamic multidimensional theory. In M. Burgoon (Ed.), Communication yearbook 6 (pp. 364–​394). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hocking, J. E., Walker, B. A., & Fink, E. L. (1982). Physical attractiveness and judgments of morality following an “immoral” act. Psychological Reports51, 111–​116. doi:10.2466/pr0.1982.51.1.111

Fink, E. L., & Mabee, T. I. (1978). Linear equations and nonlinear estimation: A lesson from a nonrecursive example. Sociological Methods and Research7, 107–​120. doi:10.1177/004912417800700105 (See “Erratum” in Sociological Methods and Research, 1979, 7, 368, for a typographical correction.)

Fink, E. L., & Walker, B.A. (1977). Humorous responses to embarrassment. Psychological Reports40, 475–​485. doi:10.2466/pr0.1977.40.2.475

Fink, E. L., & Noell, J. J. (1975). Interpersonal communication following the Wallace shooting. Human Communication Research1, 158–​167. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00263.x

Fink, E. L., Rey, L. D., Johnson, K. W., Spenner, K. I., Morton, D. R., & Flores, E. T. (1975). The effects of family occupational type, sex, and appeal style on helping behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology11, 43–​52. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00263.x

Chapters and Entries in Books
Fink, E. L. (in press). Validity, measurement of. In M. Allen (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods (pp. xxx–​xxx). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fink, E. L. (in press). Symbolic interactionism. In C. Berger & M. Roloff (Eds.), International encyclopedia of interpersonal communication (pp. xxx–​xxx). Boston, MA: Wiley Blackwell.

Fink, E. L., & Cai, D. A. (with Wang, Q.). (2013). Quantitative methods for conflict communication research. In J. Oetzel & S. Ting-Toomey (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of conflict communication: Integrating theory, research, and practice (2nd ed., pp. 41–​66). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fink, E. L., & Cai, D. A. (2013). Discrepancy models of belief change. In J. P. Dillard & L. Chen (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of persuasion: Developments in theory and practice (2nd ed., pp. 84–​103). Los Angeles, CA: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781452218410.n6

Cai, D. A., & Fink, E. L. (2011). Intercultural networks. In G. A. Barnett (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social networks (Vol. 1, pp. 419–​421). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Cai, D. A., & Fink, E. L. (2009). Communicate successfully by seeking balance. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior: Indispensable knowledge for evidence-based management (2nd ed., pp. 425–​444). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley.

Fink, E. L., Cai, D. A., & Wang, Q. (2006). Quantitative methods for conflict communication research, with special reference to culture. In J. G. Oetzel & S. Ting-Toomey (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of conflict communication: Integrating theory, research, and practice (pp. 33–​64). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp. 33–​38 and 50–​56 reprinted in D. A. Cai (Ed.). (2010). Intercultural communication: Vol. 2. Studying intercultural communication. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Cai, D. A., & Fink, E. L. (2002). Persuasion. In W. A. Donohue & L. L. Massi (Eds.), Communicating and connecting: The functions of human communication (2nd ed., pp. 167–​183). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. (This chapter is a revised version of Cai & Fink, 1996, below.)

Fink, E. L., Kaplowitz, S. A., & Hubbard, S. M. (2002). Oscillation in beliefs and decisions. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 17–​37). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.

Haller, A. O., Fink, E. L., & Janusik, L. (2000). Social psychology of status allocation. In E.F. Borgatta & R.J.V. Montgomery (Eds.),Encyclopedia of sociology (2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 2780–​2789). New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA.

Kaplowitz, S. A., Fink, E. L., & Lin, Y.-L. (1998). Speaking loudly and carrying a big stick: The effect of power tactics and structural power on perceptions of the power user. In P.C. Washburn (Ed.), Research in political sociology (Vol. 8, pp. 103–​119). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Fink, E. L., & Kaplowitz, S. A. (1997). Oscilação em crenças e redes cognitivas. In M. Rector & E. Neiva (Eds.), Comunicação na era pós-moderna (pp. 265–​290). Petrópolis, Brasil: Vozes.

(1998). Chapter reprinted in the second edition of this book; other publication information identical.

Kaplowitz, S. A., & Fink, E. L. (1997). Message discrepancy and persuasion. In G. A. Barnett & F. J. Boster (Eds.), Progress in communication sciences (Vol. 13, pp. 75–​106). Greenwich, CT: Ablex.

Kaplowitz, S. A., & Fink, E. L. (1996). Cybernetics of attitudes and decisions. In J. H. Watt & C. A. VanLear (Eds.), Dynamic patterns in communication processes (pp. 277–​300). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cai, D. A., & Fink, E. L. (1996). Social influence. In W. A. Donohue & D. A. Cai (Eds.), Communicating and connecting: The functions of human communication (pp. 231–​246). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.

Fink, E. L., & Kaplowitz, S. A. (1993). Oscillation in beliefs and cognitive networks. In W. D. Richards Jr. & G. A. Barnett (Eds.), Progress in communication sciences (Vol. 12, pp. 247–​272). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Kaplowitz, S. A., & Fink, E. L. (1992). Dynamics of attitude change. In R. L. Levine & H. E. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Analysis of dynamic psychological systems: Vol. 2. Methods and applications (pp. 341–​369). New York, NY: Plenum.

Kaplowitz, S. A., & Fink, E. L. (1988). A spatial-linkage model of cognitive dynamics. In G. A. Barnett & J. Woelfel (Eds.), Readings in the Galileo system: Theory, methods and applications (pp. 117–​146). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Woelfel, J., Holmes, R., Cody, M., & Fink, E. L. (1988). A multidimensional scaling based procedure for designing persuasive messages and measuring their effects. In G. A. Barnett & J. Woelfel (Eds.), Readings in the Galileo system: Theory, methods and applications (pp. 235–​241). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Fink, E. L. (1987). Communication effects and the two cultures of communication research (a section introduction). In M. Gurevitch & M. R. Levy (Eds.), Mass communication review yearbook (Vol. 6, pp. 401–​404).  Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Robinson, J. P., & Fink, E. L. (1986). Beyond mass culture and class culture: Subcultural differences in the structure of music preferences. In S. Ball-Rokeach & M. Cantor (Eds.), Media, audience, and social structure (pp. 226–​239). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Fink, E. L., (1985). Mass communication and the individual (a section introduction). In M. Gurevitch & M. R. Levy (Eds.), Mass communication review yearbook (Vol. 5, pp. 371–​374). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Fink, E. L., & Monge, P. R. (1985). An exploration of confirmatory factor analysis. In B. Dervin & M. Voight (Eds.), Progress in communication sciences (Vol. 6, pp. 167–​197). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Levy, M. R., & Fink, E. L. (1985). Home video recorders and the transience of television broadcasts. In M. Gurevitch & M. R. Levy (Eds.), Mass communication review yearbook (Vol. 5, pp. 569–​584). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. (This is a reprint of the 1984 article that appeared in the Journal of Communication; see above.)

Fink, E. L. (1980). Unobserved variables within structural equation models. In P. R. Monge & J. N. Cappella (Eds.), Multivariate techniques in human communication research (pp. 111–​141). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Fink, E. L., & Huber, K. (1977). Self-awareness and definitional processes within dyadic interaction: Simulation of a dynamic system. In X. J. R. Avula (Ed.), Proceedings of the first international conference on mathematical modeling (Vol. 5, pp. 2617–​2626). Rolla, MO: University of Missouri-Rolla. This paper was presented at the Conference in August 1977.

Book Review
Fink, E. L. (1976). [Review of the book Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 7), edited by L. Berkowitz]. Contemporary Sociology5, 196–​197. doi:10.2307/2062988

Reports, Monographs, and Other Works
Fink, E. L., & Irions, A. L. (2015, April). Randall P. Harrison. ICA Newsletter, 43(3), 14.

Fink, E. L., Poole, M. S., & Chai, S. (2011, May). Analysis of the NRC report on Ph.D. program quality. Spectra, 47 (2), 16–​19.

Fink, E. L. (2007, October 26). Will anyone stop torture and abuse? [Letter to the editor]. The Washington Post, p. A20.

Simmons, K. W., Stein, C. A., Nehls-Frumkin, M., & Fink, E. L. (1979). Attitudes toward health care.  Final report for a research project sponsored by Health Central Inc., from grants from the Kaiser Foundation and the Health Action League, Lansing, Michigan.

Woelfel, J., Barnett, G. A., Serota, K. B., Holmes, R., Cody, M. J., Saltiel, J.,  Fink, E. L., Marlier, J., & Gillham, J. R. (1977). Galileo IV—a program for metric multidimensional scaling. Honolulu, HI: The East-West Communications Institute.

Fink, E. L. (1975). An empirical analysis of vicarious embarrassment: A study of social interaction and emotion. Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dissertation Abstracts International36, 3138A–​3139A. (University Microfilms No. 75-18, 168).

Fink, E.  L. (1969). The reliability of forms for assessing significant other influence: The Wisconsin significant other battery and expectation elicitors. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Haller, A. O., Woelfel, J. (with Fink, E. L.). (1968). The Wisconsin significant other battery. U.S. Office of Education Report No. 5-1170 (Grant No. OEG-3-051170-1992). This also appears as Haller, A.O., Woelfel, J., & Fink, E. L. (1969). The Wisconsin significant other battery. Arlington Heights, VA: Educational Resources Information Center Document Center.